Fitzroy Somerset Lanyon Penno, The last Imperial Assistant Adjutant-General in Victoria 1854 – 1930

On Friday 18 October 1889, tucked away on page seven of the Melbourne Argus, an announcement – the appointment of 35-year-old Captain F.S.L. Penno as assistant adjutant-general in the Victorian Military Forces.   The appointment was also noted in the Sydney Morning Herald on the same date and was later copied by Hobart’s The Mercury.  In addition to the details noted in the Argus, the Sydney newspaper added that Penno was from the 1st Battalion of the Welch Regiment (41st Foot).  The London Gazette did not publish the by now Major Penno’s appointment until December 1889, but added that Penno would take up local rank of Lieutenant-Colonel for the duration of his appointment. [1]  On 13 December, the Advertiser in Adelaide reported that Penno had sailed from London for Melbourne; he arrived on the Parramatta in January 1890.[2]  Penno’s career to that point had been touched on by the initial reports of his new appointment in the colony of Victoria, but the London Gazette was perhaps a more authoritative indicator:

  • 69th Second Lieutenant Charles H. D. Cass to be Lieutenant, vice F. S. L. Penno, promoted into the 41st Foot. Dated 2nd February, 1881.[3]
  • 41st Lieutenant Fitzroy S. L. Penno, from the 69th Foot, to be Captain, vice C. Torkington, retired. Dated 2nd February, 1881.[4]
  • The Welsh Regiment, Captain Fitzroy S. L. Penno to be Adjutant, vice Captain A. R. Reade, who vacates that appointment. Dated 4th August, 1887.[5]
  • Major F. S. L. Penno, the Welsh Regiment, has been granted the local rank of Lieutenant-Colonel whilst employed with the Colonial Forces in Victoria. Dated 12th December, 1889.[6]

As the new AAG in Victoria, on a salary of £950 p.a., Penno was to replace Lieutenant-Colonel (local rank) Peregrine Thomas Fellowes, former adjutant of the East Surrey Regiment, who had held the appointment since 1883.  Shortly before Penno’s arrival in Melbourne, another change was occurring in the Victorian Military Forces.  Colonel Henry Studholme Brownrigg, Rifle Brigade, the outgoing Victorian Commandant, handed over to Major-General Bruce Alexander Tulloch in October 1889. [7]  Tulloch came to Victoria with a distinguished career behind him. More important for our story of Penno, Tulloch had been the commander of the Welsh Regiment in South Africa and Egypt. [8]

Readers will not be surprised that Penno also served in South Africa and Egypt with the Welsh regiment and certainly came to Tulloch’s attention.  Indeed, there is little doubt that Tulloch had requested Penno for Victoria, especially as Penno was a noted rifle shot and Tulloch himself was an ardent advocate of rifle shooting.  One of Tulloch’s responsibilities was to be president of the Victorian Rifle Association (VRA) and the office of the AAG had carriage of the day-to-day affairs of rifle clubs in Victoria amongst other duties.  However before we begin an exploration of Penno’s time in Victoria, a more detailed summary of his career to date is called for.

Fortunately, in 1892, the Illustrated Sydney News provided just that:

Colonel Penno was born in England in 1854. At nineteen years of age, viz. in 1873, he was gazetted to the old 69th Regiment, now the Second battalion of the Welsh Regiment, joining the depot at Milford Haven [in Pembrokeshire, Wales] and in the following spring he joined the service companies at Gibraltar. From 1878 to 1881 he was assistant musketry-instructor to his regiment, and in the latter year (the year in which ‘territorialism’ was introduced into the army) was promoted captain in the old 41st Regiment, which, under the territorial scheme, became the First Battalion of the Welsh Regiment.

The 41st were then at Gibraltar, under orders to proceed to Natal with the reinforcements under Sir Frederick Roberts, to take part in the campaign against the Boers.[9] Colonel, then Captain, Penno served with the mounted infantry in Natal in 1881-82, under that distinguished soldier, Colonel Hallam Parr, C.M.G.[10] From 1882 to 1887 he was adjutant of the 3rd Glamorgan Rifle Volunteers, and in August of the latter year he was appointed adjutant of his own battalion of the Welsh Regiment. [11]

The Welsh were then in Egypt, whither Captain Penno at once repaired; but meeting with a severe accident on parade, he was prevented from being present with his regiment in the action at Gemaizah, near Suakim, in 1888.[12] In July, 1889, he proceeded on active service up the Nile, under General Montmorency (now Lord Frankfort) against the dervishes.[13] In the same year he went with his regiment to Malta, and in November was promoted major.

Colonel Penno married, in 1882, Laura, only daughter of the late Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Espinasse, of H.M. 12th Regiment.[14] He is a devoted sportsman, and a rifle-shot of the first rank. [15]

This last aspect of Penno’s credentials is an important clue to his new life in Victoria.  He certainly came highly recommended.  In October 1889, shortly after his arrival in Victoria to take up his post as Commandant, Major General Alexander Bruce Tulloch gave a tour de horizon on military matters in an interview with the Argus newspaper:

In connection with the question of rifle shooting, General Tulloch explains that Captain Penno, who is coming out to succeed Colonel Fellowes as assistant adjutant general, is an enthusiastic rifleman, and it was largely for this reason that he sought to secure that officer’s services for the colony.  He is one of the best shots at Wimbledon, and has fired in the English eight.  General Tulloch has as yet had no opportunity of judging of the degree of perfection attained by the colonial forces in shooting, but if they are short of the Wimbledon standard, and there is an officer in the British service who can help them to reach the standard, that officer is Captain Penno. He has acted as adjutant of one of the English regiments, and is therefore well qualified in other respects for the work he is required to do in the colony.[16]

As anticipated by these remarks it did not take Penno after his long before he was engaged with the VRA and musketry standards for the militia forces of Victoria.  The VRA had been formed in late 1860 to support the new Volunteer movement.  Penno would have felt entirely comfortable as a member – a vice-president ex officio – of its Council; most were Militia or former Volunteer officers. [17]   He also felt entirely comfortable on the rifle range, and quickly became involved in musketry and VRA prize shooting both personally and as an umpire. Only a week or so after his arrival in the colony he was at the Williamstown range with the commandant and other staff, evaluating a new kind of self-registering target. It was the start of a busy five year posting for Penno.

With his reputation as a rifleman preceding him, Penno did not disappoint.  In April 1890 Penno and his staff tested the new rolled Mark 3 ammunition for their Martini-Henry rifles.[18]  At 800 yards, with the standard seven shots, Penno coolly placed a centre and six bull’s-eyes for 34 out of a possible 35 points. The attendant journalist opined: ‘Some of the crack shots of the VRA will need to watch the [AAG] during the next VRA meeting’.[19]  Perhaps Penno was keen to put on a performance for other reasons – at the Easter camp for the Militia in early April, Penno had watched the live battle firing of the various units.  One unit managed to expend 3,988 rounds but only hit the targets 193 times; the observing newsmen may have been ‘impressed by the shower of lead poured into the position’, but Penno may have been less so.[20]

In May 1890, a typical selection of duties faced Penno in his new role.  One day he was in Sandhurst, a gold mining settlement near Bendigo in central Victoria, ‘passing in’ recruits for the local militia battalion.  Two days later he was dressed in his dress uniform for the opening of the second session of the Victorian Parliament as one of the headquarters staff greeting the Governor upon his arrival to open the session.  When the commandant presented a lecture at the inaugural meeting of the United Service Institute in June, Penno was in attendance, rubbing shoulders with such luminaries as the Victorian minister for defence, Sir Frederick Sargood, and the secretary for defence, Commander Robert Henry Muirhead Collins, along with the leading officers of the various corps.[21]

Duties would continue to be varied and would keep Penno busy in a typical round of Militia, artillery and cadet unit inspections (often with the commandant), musketry practices, judging military tournaments, attending the annual naval and military ball and Queen’s Birthday levees with his wife, the spring racing carnival, and occasionally, less enjoyable duties. In July, the only daughter of Major-General Tulloch passed away.  There was a semi-military funeral, as Tulloch’s daughter had been keen on military matters and especially admired the navy.   Penno provided ‘Another splendid wreath in the form of Prince of Wales feathers, the emblems of the Welsh Regiment, [with] the inscription, from Lieut. Colonel Penno, on behalf of his brother officers of the 1st Battalion of the Welsh Regiment, as a token of regard for the daughter of their old colonel’.[22]

In early May and again later in that month at meetings of the VRA Council, Penno keenly advocated that a Victorian rifle team should travel to England in 1891 to shoot at Bisley for the Kolopore Cup. [23] Part of the impetus for the thinking was that the Victorian Mounted Rifles planned to send a team to compete in the prestigious Royal Military Tournament in England.

Colonel Penno pointed out that the long correspondence which had taken place over the choice of an Australian eleven showed that opinions differed materially in the colonies, and if so much difficulty was experienced m the choice of a cricket team he thought the difficulties were likely to be emphasised in the case of an Australian  eight. A team from one colony would, he thought, be better coached…The remarks of the assistant adjutant-general were received with applause.[24]


Lieutenant-Colonel Penno 1892


The suggestion was well-received, but a variety of matters interfered with pursuing the idea.  It was not until 1897 – in Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Year – that a Victorian rifle team would actually go to Bisley to compete for, and win, the Kolopore Cup.[25]  Nonetheless, Penno’s enthusiasm and support for the VRA riflemen and rifle shooting generally, as well as his own undoubted prowess with the rifle were recognised when he was appointed captain of the Victorian rifle team to compete in Brisbane in late 1890, at the keenly contested Intercolonial rifle matches.  Unhappily that year, due to an ongoing dispute with New South Wales over which rifle sights to use, NSW refused to assist intercolonial teams with rail fares to the Queensland border, so the matches were cancelled.

Penno also found himself right in the middle of local politics in August and September 1890 when an Australia-wide maritime strike by stokers and other workers threatened to turn violent in Melbourne. Seriously alarmed, the Victorian Government called out the Mounted Rifles, the Victorian Rangers and the Victorian artillery.  They were gathered in Victoria Barracks close to Melbourne’s dock area, for potential use as an ‘aid to the civil power’ in case rioting broke out and overwhelmed the local Police.  Penno as AAG advised Tulloch on the legalities, and issued the telegrams calling in country units of cavalry, mounted rifles and others to Melbourne. Penno subsequently found himself as a witness in the court of inquiry called to investigate a report that Victorian Rifles commander Colonel Tom Price had famously ordered his men ‘to aim low and lay them [the strikers] out.’

Penno’s deep knowledge of all aspects of rifle shooting and his position in the Victorian forces at the time made him a natural choice as president of a Board of Inquiry established by the Victorian defence minister in 1890 to examine and report on the effectiveness of Martini-Henry ammunition being produced by the new Colonial Ammunition Company factory in Melbourne. Penno himself led his board on a first hand test firing of randomly selected ammunition at the VRA range at Williamstown in Melbourne. In November at the annual VRA rifle matches, Penno competed in the Victorian ‘Queen’s Prize’, the top, three stage, long range competition for individual riflemen; Penno came in at 10th in the final stage field of 30.  He also led a team from the staff to win the first ever ‘Hopetoun Match’ – named after the Victorian Governor, the seventh Earl of Hopetoun – fired under service conditions. Penno also came second for the VRA Gold Medal.

Meanwhile, a major recession began in Victoria in 1890 with bank crashes and in turn, this placed pressure on military expenditure in Victoria.  However it did not substantially change the habits of the upper social classes in Melbourne. Having established himself so easily and in such a well-regarded manner in what passed for society in Victoria at that time, along with his official position as General Tulloch’s principal staff officer, Penno and his wife moved easily in the highest levels of what then passed for society in Victoria.  For example, over the Christmas season of 1890-91 the Pennos were entertained at ‘a very large house party’ at Rupertswood mansion in Sunbury, the summer home of the wealthy socialites and landowners, Sir William and Lady Clarke.[26]

There were also many social occasions to attend. In the words of one observer as the Australian winter approached, ‘the season has commenced in earnest and we are plunging once more into a vortex of winter gaiety’.[27]  The Pennos were seen at many stylish functions –  at the races, dinners and private parties as well as society balls such as the Crèche Society’s Cinderella Ball in April – presumably so named because festivities closed at midnight – the Queen’s Birthday levee at the Governor’s and the Austral Ball, to name a few.  In addition there were regimental dinners of various kinds to attend as well and the attendance at rural agricultural shows where Penno took the opportunity to enter his best hunters into the ring.[28]

Colonel Penno continued on with what would be for him a rewarding, interesting and certainly entertaining posting in Victoria.  As to his military duties, he was engaged in a constant round of inspections of country and metropolitan Militia, often in company of the commandant himself, and umpired musketry competitions.  In late March over Easter several thousand men came into camp at Langwarrin south east of Melbourne where Penno oversaw training and again umpired the battle firing practice – although he must have perhaps wondered why a red-coated target at the Easter camp had 36 bullet holes in it while khaki targets held none – was it just the attractive colour at work?[29]

In May 1891, when the Victorian Mounted Rifles detachment along with 5,000 other troops paraded flawlessly in a farewell to the VMR, leaving for the Royal Military Tournament in London, the Argus opined: ‘credit is chiefly due to [Penno], upon whom the responsibility of the arrangements of the day rested’.[30] In September he was appointed captain of the Victorian inter-colonial team for the rifle shooting to take place in South Australia.  Upon his arrival in Adelaide at a welcoming function Penno made more friends by flattering and manly references to the colonial forces:

He had been out two years, and had seen the forces of the leading colonies, and could honestly say that he had never seen troops of finer physique, and he had travelled a good deal over the world—(hear, hear)—and he felt sure that if the colonial troops were called upon to defend these shores they would do so with credit to themselves. He was not a bloodthirsty man, but all soldiers liked active service, and he hoped that before the period of his engagement ended he would have the honour of going into active service with colonial troops.[31]

Penno shot well, coming in third overall in the individual standings, no mean feat given that he was competing against a number of well-known ‘cracks’.  But soon after his return to Melbourne, following more complaints about locally produced ammunition, he was criticised by the Defence Secretary for not checking ammunition according to laid down procedures in the Treatise on Ammunition 1887.  Tulloch was forced to defend him, saying: ‘As it is, the time of the AAG is too much taken up with work which at home is done by an officer of the Royal Laboratory department’. [32]

Nonetheless, the year ended on a suitably martial note, with the holding of an assault-at-arms at the Melbourne Athletic Club, sponsored by the commandant and the other Imperial officers.  Penno acted as umpire for the bayonet teams competition as well as the ‘musical drill with arms’.[33]  Again he shot very well in the VRA’s annual prize matches that November, coming in among the top ten for the Queen’s Prize. Finally he commanded three regiments of 1,600 Militia for the battlefield firing at Lancefield Junction.  This time there were no scarlet targets.

Over the following years until his departure from the colony in March 1895 for England (and then to India to take up command of the 2nd Battalion of the Welsh Regiment), Penno became a feature of military, and with his wife, social life in Victoria.  Some highlights from those years are warranted, for the routine of an Imperial officer in the colonies was rarely dull. Rifle shooting remained Penno’s principal military interest other than hunting – and he captained Victoria five times for the inter-colonial matches with Victoria winning four times.

Penno also encouraged military tournaments, tattoos and other martial activities during his posting while continuing his annual rounds of inspections and engagement with the Easter camps – but he also encouraged contributions to the United Services home for old soldiers at Drysdale, a village not far from Fort Queenscliff at the heads of Port Philip Bay.  On the personal front, his home at St. Kilda, a seaside suburb of Melbourne, was burgled (as was General Tulloch’s) but his name came more noticeably into the public limelight when he was hunting with about 50 other horsemen and women in June 1893 on a drag hunt organised by the Melbourne Hounds at Kew.  A prominent horsewoman was killed when her horse hit a fence and fell on her; several others cleared the fence but Penno’s horse, Squire, baulked. Penno also took a fall but was not seriously injured.

In November 1894 Penno was appointed acting commandant, following the departure of General Tulloch, who was a victim of the military retrenchments due to the ongoing recession.[34]  It wasn’t until the following February that Major-General Sir Charles Holled-Smith arrived to take up the role as Commandant and Tulloch’s successor.  The appointment of Penno as acting commandant evinced strong criticism from some quarters, especially from some colonial officers who felt they were more senior to Penno, still only a substantive major in the British Army.  Suddenly, Penno was not that popular officer but that Imperial officer taking a colonial’s job.  The minister for defence for the third time, Sir Frederick Sargood, was quick to defend the decision, explaining that the decision ‘was made strictly in accordance with Victorian military regulations and the rules of seniority and merit’.  Not only were Militia officers always the junior to the Imperial officer of the same rank, but also that Penno was regarded as having the permanent rank of Lieutenant-Colonel since his appointment in 1889.[35]  Mrs Penno had already left for England, never to return.

On 30 March 1895, Penno and son followed his wife for England on the Armand Behic after a number of prominent and popular farewell functions.  There was a lengthy valedictory in Melbourne’s leading newspaper, the Argus, sub-headed ‘A Successful Officer’.   Following his last shooting match with the VRA at the All Ranks Rifle Match on 18 March, Penno was toasted by the chairman of the VRA and senior Militia officer, Colonel John Montgomery Templeton, who said that:

…during his five years term of office they had found him a courteous gentlemanly officer and a splendid rifle shot It was a good thing to have at headquarters an officer of such experience in rifle shooting because he was able to give the commandant some idea as to what the men were like. There was a levelling up as well as a levelling down for all men were equal on the range, and got to know more of each other than they ever could on parade.  Those present could appreciate Colonel Penno both as a rifle shot and a comrade (cheers). [36]

The press valedictory echoed the sentiments, noting that:

although Colonel Penno has had to bear a good deal of ill-considered and senseless abuse, he has won the admiration and regard of almost every officer and man connected with the military forces of the colony. His fine powers as a rifle shot brought him more closely into contact with the rank and file of the force than any other officer who has held the same position, and his influence in developing good shooting in the force has been a very valuable one…Colonel Penno was able not only to tell his men what to do, but to lie down on the firing mound and show them how to do it… He had the invaluable quality in a captain of quickly discerning which member of the team could be best left to themselves and which might be expected to improve their scores under advice from a shot in whom they had confidence… In individual shooting Colonel Penno was always prominent, and has always shot into the final thirty for the Queens Prize here, taking away with him four of the of the V.R.A. Queen’s badges… [37]

Penno’s subsequent career did not reach the heights to which his time in Victoria and previous service may have indicated.  He commanded the 2nd Welsh Battalion for many years in India, and was promoted to full colonel in 1902. While he was still shooting in British Army rifle matches as late as 1908, by then he was already on half pay and on retired pay by 1914.[38]  Even when the Great War broke out and he was re-invigorated to be appointed Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster General of the 53rd (Welsh) Division, he discovered after a short time at Suvla Bay in 1915, that like many other senior officers he was an old man in a young man’s war and was invalided home, where he was made president of the Kent Quartering Committee.  He retired fully in 1916 and passed away in 1930.[39]

There was little doubt that during his long posting to Victoria, Penno was held in high esteem, not least because he had demonstrated to the colonial soldiers that he could be one of them, at least on the range, and was always seen to be ‘earnest and conscientious’ both in his duties and in his enthusiasm and advocacy for Victoria’s military forces.  He worked well as General Tulloch’s AAG and de facto chief-of-staff, and was well regarded by the Victorian Government.  Penno was the last Imperial AAG in Victoria.  He was replaced by a Victorian Militia officer, Colonel John Charles Hoad.  But he was perhaps an inspired choice, for he left the post in good standing, about as popular as a British Imperial officer could ever be in any Australian colony at the time.

[1] The London Gazette, 17 December 1889, p.7282.

[2] The Advertiser, 13 December 1889, p.5 and Index to Unassisted Inward Passenger Lists to Victoria 1852-1923, Public Records Office, Victoria (online index).

[3] The London Gazette, 29 March 1881, p.1438.

[4] The London Gazette, 25 February 1881, p.851.

[5] The London Gazette, 12 July 1887, p.3770.

[6] The London Gazette, 17 December 1889, p.7282

[7] For details of Brownrigg’s career:  Clarke, S.J., ‘Marching to Their Own Drum: British Officers as Military Commandants in the Australian Colonies and New Zealand 1870-1901’, PhD Thesis, ADFA@UNSW, 1999.

[8] Sir Alexander Bruce Tulloch (1838-1920) was a soldier and military intelligence officer. He joined the 1st Royal Scots in 1855 and served in the Crimea, India, China and Egypt. He worked in the Intelligence Department of the War Office, was in charge of the Intelligence Department in Egypt, being sent on missions to Belgium, Crete and elsewhere. He commanded the Welsh Regiment in South Africa and Egypt. As a Major General he commanded the Victorian military forces and acted as military adviser to the Australian colonies. He was awarded the KCB in 1902.  See

[9] Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, Bt, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, PC (1832 –1914) was one of the most successful British commanders of the 19th century. His path crossed Penno’s when for ‘a very brief interval as Governor of Natal and Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Transvaal Province and High Commissioner for South Eastern Africa with effect from 7 March 1881, Roberts (having become a baronet on 11 June 1881)  was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army on 16 November 1881.’,_1st_Earl_Roberts

[10] Major General Sir Henry Hallam-Parr, KCB, CMG (1847-1914).

[11] In 1881 the 41st Regiment of Foot became the 1st Battalion, The Welsh Regiment, the 69th Regiment of Foot became the 2nd Battalion and the Royal Glamorgan Light Infantry Militia ceased to exist as an independent force, becoming, with the Rifle Volunteer Corps of Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire, Glamorgan and South Cardiganshire, the 3rd (Militia) Battalion, The Welsh Regiment. The Regimental Depot of the new Regiment was at Maindy Barracks at Maindy Field, Cardiff.,  Penno became adjutant of the 1st Battalion of the regiment in 1887.

[12] One can only guess at what happened to Penno but almost certainly a horse was involved!

[13] Major-General Reymond Hervey Frankfort de Montmorency 3rd Viscount Frankfort de Montmorency, KCB (1835–1902)

[14] Lieutenant-Colonel James William Espinasse, promoted Major 1850.

[15] Illustrated Sydney News, 26 March 1892, p.6.

[16] The Argus, 31 October 1889, p.8

[17] Victoria moved substantially to a Militia defence force structure from 1885 and was the first colony to establish its own Defence department and minister, Sir Frederick Sargood.

[18] Rolled ammunition: the MK III pattern Martini-Henry which was approved in 1879, used improved .  cartridges which were rolled, then folded at the neck to hold the paper-patched bullet.  Jams encountered during the Egyptian campaigns of the 1880’s led to the introduction of the solid–drawn case in the latter part of the 1880’s for use in the rifle.  The Australian rifle clubs had to be content with the foiled case and when the Colonial Ammunition Company of Footscray, Victoria commenced the production of the M-H cartridge the foil cases were still being used, mostly supplied by Eley Brothers, with only the filling and loading of the projectile being undertaken by CAC.  The introduction of the Magazine Lee-Metford rifle in.303” for general use by the British army in the early 1890s, was subsequently followed by the Australian colonies adopting  the Martini Henry conversion to .303” by the mid to late 1890’s.  Details courtesy of Ray MacMahon.

[19] The Argus, 25 April 1890, p9.

[20] The Argus, 8 April 1890, p6.

[21] Sargood was a former Volunteer officer and an ardent supporter of rifle shooting.  Rickard, J., ‘Sargood, Sir Frederick Thomas (1834–1903)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, accessed 10 April 2012.Collins was later Australia’s first Federal Secretary for Defence. Cunneen, C., ‘Collins, Sir Robert Henry Muirhead (1852–1927)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, accessed 29 March 2012.

[22] The Argus, 26 July 1890, p.9.

[23] The National Rifle Association (NRA) had moved to Bisley from Wimbledon by 1891.  The Kolopore Cup was the only team event open to units from the Empire at the annual prize matches of the NRA of England.  It had been paid for by the late Rajah of Kolopore, and actually took the form of two ornate vases.

[24] The Argus, 9 May 1890, p.9.

[25] Kilsby, A.J., The Bisley Boys, Melbourne 2009.

[26] Illustrated Sydney News, 17 January 1891, p.13.

[27] ‘Victorian Social Items’, Illustrated Sydney News, 9 May 1891, p.7.17 January 1891, p.13.

[28] Penno advertised for a house with stabling in February 1890, not less than 20 minutes from Victoria Barracks by tram.  He soon after moved in to a house in St. Kilda, with 12 rooms, a coach-house and stables and a large garden. It is not known how many horses he kept. The Argus 13 February 1890, p.10 and The Argus 8 February 1893, p.3.

[29] The Argus, 31 March 1891, p.6.

[30] The Argus, 26 May 1891, p.4.

[31] The Advertiser, 4 September 1891, p.7.

[32] The Argus, 14 October 1891, p.6.

[33] The Argus, 6 November 1891, p9.

[34] Walsh, K. and Hooton, J., Australian Autobiographical Narratives, Vol.2, 1850-1900, UNSW and NLA, 1998, p.272.

[35] The Argus, 19 November 1894, pp.4-5.

[36] The Argus, 18 March 1895, p.7.

[37] The Argus, 30 March 1895, p.9.

[38] The Times, 13th July 1908, p.12 and The London Gazette, 31 August 1914, p.6887.

39 The London Gazette, 14 April 1916, p.4007 and The Times, 26 August 1930, p.14; other detail courtesy of the Regimental Museum of The Royal Welsh in email to author on 27 March 2012.

Contact Andrew Kilsby about this article.

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